Pass about 70 km (45 miles) west of Kabul. It flows in an easterly direction, past Kabul, and through Jalalabad city, and then on to Dakka where it enters Pakistani territory and finally runs into the Indus at Attock.


The climate within region of Kabul is considered to be arid to semi-arid steppe. Because of the very low amounts of precipitation, especially from May to November, Kabul can be very dry and dusty. Extreme temperature changes occur from night to day, season to season, and from place to place. The chief characteristic of Afghanistan's climate is a blue cloudless sky with over 300 days of sunshine yearly. Even during the winter, skies usually remain clear between snowfalls, which are on average 15 to 30cm annually. The daily temperature in winter is -15 to -20 degrees Celsius (C), and in summer +15 to +30C. The coldest month of the year is January when the average temperature is -12C, and the hottest month is July when the average is 25C. The maximum temperature has been recorded as +36.9C in July and the minimum as -21.7C in February.

 

Economy

Most of the Kabul's economy depended on its tourists in the 60's and 70's. Kabul had textile, cotton production, and carpet production industries, but most of its economy came through tourism which it lost during its destruction. Kabul's produces include: natural gas, cotton, wool, carpets, agriculture, and some small production companies. Kabul has trade partnerships with the UK, France, Germany, USA, India, South Korea, Turkmenistan, Kenya, Russia, Pakistan, China, Iran. Kabul's economy was influenced by the American power and has increased by almost 3500% after being down for 25 years. A new currency was introduced to Afghans which helped the economy. New business was in the new regime. Many American industries were interested in the new Kabul and many new companies have since then opened their branches in Kabul. The Kabul City Centre Mall was built and has nearly 100 shops. The economy is in a boom level and is increasing dramatically. Home costs are going up as well as wages of employees. The cost of living has increased dramatically which is a problem for the non-educated Afghans, who cannot support themselves. The UN also helps Afghans in need of help by providing aid, food and school materials for schools. Many international aid organizations are contributing to the Afghanistan economy

 

History

Buddhist monuments in western Asia before their demolition in March 2001.]] --> Kabul's history dates back more than 5,000 years. It was once the center of Zoroastrianism and subsequently also a home for thousands of Buddhists. The Arabs tried to conquer the area in the 7th century, but they were defeated by the Hindu Shahi's of Kabul. The area was conquered by Mahmood Ghaznavid in 1002 and the Hindu Shahi King Jay Pala committed suicide. It was overshadowed by Ghazni and Herat until Babur made it his capital (150426). It remained under Mughal rule until its capture (1738) by Nadir Shah of Persia. It succeeded Kandahar as Afghanistan's capital in 1773. During the Afghan Wars the British army took over Kabul (1839). In 1842, the withdrawing British troops were ambushed and almost annihilated after the Afghans had promised them safe conduct; in retaliation another British force partly burned Kabul. The British again occupied the city in 1879, after their resident staff were massacred there. On December 23, 1979, Soviet armed forces landed at the Kabul airport to help bolster a Communist government. Kabul became the Soviet command center. In February 1989, Soviet forces withdrew from the city after they were defeated by the Afghan Mujahideen. In spring of 1992 the government of Mohammad Najibullah collapsed, and Kabul fell into the hands of Afghah Warlords. Destruction of the city increased as the coalition of the parties broke into rival warring factions, and much of Kabul was damaged. In 1996 the Taliban took over the city and started a new strict Islamic law which included Islamic schools, government, clothing, food, and recruitment to Al Qaeda, which impacted the Afghan's daily life. Some people happier with the strict Islamic laws, while some were unhappy. On September 11, 2001, the World Trade Center was hit by Osama bin Laden's Al Qaeda group. On November 12, 2001, American military forces finally took over Kabul City, and the Taliban forces fled. Kabul was under a new regime, and re-construction of new buildings, schools, and universities slowly began

 

Politics

Kabul has been long known for its politics and different warlords. It was under the control of many political groups and warlords when Mohammad Najibullah's government collapsed. Kabul city was in the hands of many political groups who fought for power until it was taken over by the Taliban in 1996 and its politics was changed. Kabul's politics become more aligned with the Islamic regime and new laws were introduced by the Taliban. There was only one leader for Afghanistan Mullah Omar, the head of Taliban who ran Kabul's political party until the US invaded on October 7, 2001. New laws and humanities came in effect to enable Kabul to recover from the destruction caused by the Taliban. Loya Jirga took place to solve the current political problems and situations in Kabul and introduce new laws. Kabul citizens have been given the right to vote.
After being re-scheduled twice, Afghanistan's presidential elections were held on October 9, 2004. Over 8 million Afghans voted in the elections. The Joint Electoral Management Body of Afghanistan certified the elections on November 3rd, and declared Hamid Karzai, the interim President, the winner with 55.4% of the vote. Karzai's strongest opponent, Yunis Qanooni, received 16.3% of the vote. The elections were not without controversy; allegations of fraud and ballot stuffing were brought up by many of the presidential candidates including Yunis Qanooni. Many felt that Hamid Karzai had an unfair advantage over the other candidates as he had access to financial and logistical resources that many of the other candidates did not have. A panel of international experts was set up to investigate the matter. The panel did find evidence of voting irregularities, however, they said that it was not enough to affect the outcome of the elections. Some people claimed that they were forced to vote for the current president and some claim that they were paid to do so.
With help from the United States and the United Nations, Afghanistan adopted its new constitution, establishing the country as an Islamic Republic, in early January 2004. According to the constitution, the Afghan government consists of a powerful and popularly elected President, two Vice Presidents, and a National Assembly consisting of two houses: the House of People (Wolesi Jirga), and the House of Elders (Meshrano Jirga). There is also an independent Judiciary branch consisting of the Supreme Court (Stera Mahkama), High Courts and Appeal Courts. The President appoints the members of the Supreme Court with the approval of the Wolesi Jirga. Assembly elections are planned for late 2005
 

Transportation

Public Transportation is in a poor state in Kabul as the number of vehicles and inexperienced drivers is increasing. Currently there is no transportation service in the city, and roads are in disrepair. Drivers are also impeded by the large number of cyclists. The number of vehicles increased dramatically since the US took over Afghanistan. More vehicles are seen in the city and more people are purchasing cars. The Kabul Bus system is also a problem with a large amount of traffic and old 1965 vehicles which have not been upgraded since. There are no highways or freeways in Kabul right now, but the government has scheduled to rebuild the roads. The funding for the roads comes from the current drivers who are charged annually for driving on the roads. Camels, donkeys and other transportation animals are used to transport food, items and other goods to other cities. UN and the American troops have begun working on the Kabul roads and they are in the process of rebuilding the roads and are creating a new system for the Kabul transportation services. Auto companies like Honda, Toyota, Ford Motor Company, and Chevrolet have been reintroduced in Kabul.

 

Demographics

Kabul has a mosaic of ethnic groups and the Persian-speakers form the largest group. The Tajiks and Pashtuns make up a largest percentage of the province though there are other important minorities like Hazaras, Uzbeks, Turkmens and Sikhs & Hindus.
Dari Persian is primarily spoken throughout the province, while there are significant number of Pashto-speakers as well. Bilingualism is common in Kabul because of the large movements of people from country sides and other provinces of Afghanistan to the Kabul Province.
About 85% of Kabul's population is Sunnite while 14% include Shi'ites. Sikhism and Hinduism form the rest.
 

Education

Kabul is the country's center for education. People from all over the world, including Kabuls country sides come to Kabul for education. Kabul has many schools and universities which have opened their doors for women, after falling of the Taliban regime which had declared it illegal for women to have an education. 55% of Kabul's 1970's population was educated without materials and proper learning resources to get a proper education. Most of the young children are sent to work by their parents to support their living costs; therefore, the education rate has declined dramatically during the last 20 years. Most of the schools in Kabul were set as battle points during the war and have been demolished. Kabul's education level is going up now by the help of many international organizations and more people are being sent back to schools to get a degree. The value of education is being reintroduced in the communities and they are encouraged to send their children to schools for a better education and a better life. Most of the Afghans who took refuge in Pakistan and India have returned to Kabul with their degrees and been able to obtain jobs. Most of them are contributing their knowledge to the community by opening new courses and institutes. According to UNICEF, Kabul's education level is in a boom now and is getting better and better.

 

Sports

Kabul is the Center of Annual Buzkashi & Soccer Tournaments, where teams from all over Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan participate. Sports is a daily routine for employees in Afghanistan, when they all join each other in tournaments and matches, specially soccer games. Afghanistan's Soccer Team also participated in many Asian Soccer Leagues. Most of the Afghans who returned from India and Pakistan to Afghanistan after the war brought cricket to the nation, and Afghanistan has had a cricket team since then. They play against Pakistani and Hindi Teams. There are boxing, taekwondo, volleyball, and kung fu teams in Kabul, which participate in tournaments locally and go on tours to other Asian countries. One of the oldest and most popular stadiums in Kabul is Ghazi stadiums, where tournaments, concerts, and National celebrations take place, however the city has lost most of the stadiums it previously had. Ghazi Stadium is currently going through a reconstruction programme whereby a new design and a new system will be established for the stadium. Schools and universities encourage participation in team sports, and there is a group of Afghans are being trained in Kabul for the next Olympic Games.

 

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Kabul Picture Gallery

Province of Kabul

 
 

The Districts of Kabul

District Area Population
Bagrami n/a 85,000
Char Asyab n/a 32,500
Deh Sabz n/a 47,900
Farza n/a 19,100
Guldara n/a 20,300
Istalif n/a 29,800
Kabul n/a 2,536,300
Kalakan n/a 26,900
Khaki Jabbar n/a 75,000
Mir Bacha Kot n/a 46,300
Mussahi n/a 30,000
Paghman n/a 150,000
Qarabagh n/a 67,700
Shakardara n/a 72,900
Surobi n/a 150,000

Kabul   كابل

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Capital Kabul
Population 3,138,100
Area 4,462 km
Time Zone UTC + 4:30
Main Languages Dari, Pashto

Kabul (Persian: کابل) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. It is in the east of the country and the capital of the province, Kabul city, is also the capital of Afghanistan. Once considered one of the most educated and beautiful cities in the world (in the early 13th century) it has since been demolished in heavy wars and strong political movements and invasions of foreign powers. Kabul is situated at an elevation of about 1800m (about 5900 ft) making it one of the highest capital cities in the world. It's also one of the country's most cosmopolitan cities and is the center of government. The current governor of Kabul is Haji Din Mohammad.

 

Geography

Kabul is located between Latitude 34-31' North and Longitude 69-12' East at an altitude of 1800 m (6000 feet) above sea level, which makes it one of the world's highest capital cities. Kabul is strategically situated in a valley surrounded by high mountains at crossroads of north-south and east-west trade routes. One million year ago the Kabul region was surrounded from south-east between Lowgar and Paghman Mountains; Charikar in the north and the Ningai Ghar mountains in the west.

 

This region formed Charikar in the north and the Ningai Ghar mountains in the west. This region formed an icy sea. In the Silurian time, at the end of ice era, the icebergs are melted gradually and the territory of this region was poured by water under heavy raining. Some deep wells in the region of today's Poli Charkhi in the east part of city are the evidence of that time. Kabul is surrounded by Koh-e Paghman Mountain from the east, Koh-e Qrough Mountain from the south-west, Koh-e Shirdarwaza Mountain from the north-east. Kabul has only one river which is called Kabul River. Kabul River rises at the Paghman Mountain toward South

Provinces of Afghanistan

Badakhshan Badghis Baghlan Balkh Bamyan Daykundi Farah Faryab Ghazni Ghor Helmand Herat Jowzjan Kabul Kandahar Kapisa Khost Konar Kunduz Laghman Lowgar Nangarhar Nimruz Nurestan Oruzgan Paktia Paktika Panjshir Parwan Samangan Sar-e-Pol Takhar Wardak Zabul

 

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